European Union Policies Affecting Disinformation
Since 2000, the overall framework of the EU has been the E-Commerce Directive which guarantees that tech companies are exempt from liability for user-generated content. The 2020 Digital Services Act ensures that companies that host other user’s digital content are not liable for that content unless they actually know it is illegal, or unless a user flags content as potentially illegal, in which case the act states it must be removed.
The EU established the Code of Practice on Disinformation. This code has been agreed upon by "online platforms, leading social networks, advertisers and advertising industry". The objectives of the code include increased transparency in political advertising, the closing down of fake accounts, and the demonetization of disinformation content.
The EU's Action Plan involved developing guidelines for obligations and accountability of online platforms.
The EU established The European Digital Media Observatory as a "hub for fact-checkers, academics and other relevant stakeholders" to support EU policy makers. During the COVID-19 pandemic the EU established the COVID-19 monitoring and reporting programme consisting of signatories of the Code of Practice.